The “values and strategic goals” grouping comprises five factors: (1) vision, (2) goals and objectives, (3) strategic direction and intent, (4) team orientation, and (5) core values. Access it simply by clicking on the project's name from a pinned Project card or from the “All Projects” page. Influence of the grouping risk awareness is especially strong among the five groupings, with all three factors belonging to this grouping being ranked among the top four influences on decision-making. Additionally, students had to get a signed permission form from their parent(s)/guardian(s) in order to participate in a group; an example of this form can be seen at Parent Signature of group form. Accessing an individual project page. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. This research deepens the understanding of factors belonging to different organizational levels that need to be highlighted during the group bidding decision-making process and provides strategies for bidding groups and their companies to improve their decision performance. First, this research focused on analyzing the factors belonging to different organizational levels that influence group bidding decision-making in construction projects, while ignoring such others as project factors, market factors, and government-related factors. Individual Contribution Each individual in a team have their own strengths and weaknesses. Individual incentive plans reward employees for the strong contributions they personally make. People prefer different approaches on how the work is organized. The interviewees were asked to comment on whether the provisional factors listed covered all possible factors, considering the context of Chinese contractors venturing into overseas markets, whether any factors could be added, deleted, or modified. Advantages of Group Work (Disadvantages of not Using Individual Work) Disadvantages of Group Work (Advantages of Using Individual Work) Students learn quality skills and insights from one another, especially from the variation of work experience and relevant courses taken. The More Groups dialog box appears. Recent work by Jarkas et al. Risk perception can generally be defined as the decision-maker’s assessment of the risk inherent in a situation [30] and plays a prominent role in the decisions people make [31]. For example, Olatunji et al. It is noteworthy that all three factors in this grouping are ranked among the top four influencing factors, indicating it plays a key role in the process of group bidding decisions. This study was supported by Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Fund from the Ministry of Education of China (16YJA630031) and Independent Innovation Foundation of Tianjin University (2017XSZ-0045). What is a sensible choice of group Id for a maven project that does not fall under any company/organisation/website? These different dimensions of an organization, that is, organizational culture, provide an organization’s identity. The system of factors on three-organizational levels influencing group decision-making. Bidding groups act in an organizational context and the construction companies need to set an appropriate strategic goal and ensure that employees at all levels have a clear understanding about this goal to provide direction for bidding groups’ decision-making. While some instructors don’t mind if students divvy up tasks and work separately, others expect a higher degree of collaboration. This content was COPIED from - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here! How we develop ActiveCollab, and the process and thinking behind design decisions. How does the aversion of conflict lead to a stifling of student initiative. If students were forming groups, then they had to complete forms such as the, . There were also deadlines students needed to meet and the spreadsheet helped me keep track of them. The relationships between the five groupings classified in this research are also worthy of further study. INDIVIDUAL REFLECTIVE REPORT This Individual report exemplifies my experiences of functioning as a team member for a marketing report.We had made a team of six members. In the story about sinking or sailing in a ship, I would mix in some personal classroom stories to highlight why picking partners wisely is beneficial. Cite this document Summary … Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing. “Team decision preference” is ranked second, indicating that nearly all the respondents’ companies have their own decision tradition that they will follow without question. How our customers are using ActiveCollab … Cons: 1. If you like to work as a team, you love teamwork. If you are interested in those individual discovering activities, check out Introducing A Social Studies Class Week 1. Thus, this factor is less important, which is confirmed by the general comments during the interviews. Twenty factors relating to individual, group, and organizational levels are identified through a literature review and interviews with experienced practitioners. Resources for Teaching and Learning History. In the Name field, type a name for the group. Of these, Denison’s organizational culture model (DOCM) is well recognized for analyzing organizational culture and has been widely applied in the construction sector [1, 45, 47]. Students learn effective project team skills. When people in your group won’t do any work. The early groundwork that the students and I did was beneficial, but it was necessary to do more. Group (Project Life Force) vs. Managing projects is one of the areas where Groups stands out. If the companies’ values are to trust and respect each other in their relationships, then the group members’ relationships will be closed and the group will be cohesive during its work. This was a good way to improve our knowledge, presentation skills and learn from each other, since every one has a different skill set and ideas to implement. Hence, the interaction and communication between group members can have a significant influence on the decision process as well as on the group’s final decision. The bidding group should be aware of the risk perceptions and risk preferences of group members and consider their risk characteristics during the decision-making process. Of these, “risk perception” is ranked first, which indicates that each individual group member is aware of, and has an opinion about, the possible risks in each case. In stage 2, articles were selected relating to factors influencing group decision-making but not limited solely to group bidding decision-making. 3. Some studies also investigate factors and propose a decision model to aid bidding. As Mellers and Cooke [34] point out, no decision model can describe all risk decision behaviors. Design. Individual Report Sample For Group Project. On group sites, students can use group discussion boards to talk about their project, log contributions, and update the project status. The five factor groups explain 80.59% of the variance (as indicated in Table 4), higher than the guideline of 60% recommended by Malhotra [72]. Therefore, it can be believed that the findings of this research can provide wide implications for both the single company and CJVs to improve their group bidding decision performance. A bidding group needs to focus on the efficiency of decision-making (e.g., decrease the time to reach a consensus) while guaranteeing higher quality decisions. Few studies have investigated the factors affecting group bidding decision-making systematically, and none has addressed the real world of bidding for construction projects. The same method was applied by Xu et al. An example of this would be the London 2012 Olympic Games in which programme management played a critical part in the success of the project. However, the focus of these studies is mainly on project characteristics, the construction companies’ resources available, and economic environmental factors such as market conditions. A. Marsteller, M. Lin et al., “The role of perceived team effectiveness in improving chronic illness care,”, P. S. P. Wong and J. Zapantis, “Driving carbon reduction strategies adoption in the Australian construction sector–the moderating role of organizational culture,”, D. R. Denison and A. K. Mishra, “Toward a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness,”, C. F. Fey and D. R. Denison, “Organizational culture and effectiveness: can American theory be applied in Russia?”, Y. Q. Chen, S. J. Zhang, L. S. Liu, and J. Hu, “Risk perception and propensity in bid/no-bid decision-making of construction projects,”, R. Awwad, “Evolutionary simulation of contractors’ learning and behavior under two bid-tendering approaches,”, S. H. Han, J. E. Diekmann, and J. H. Ock, “Contractor’s risk attitudes in the selection of international construction projects,”, P. R. Laughlin, E. C. Hatch, J. S. Silver, and L. Boh, “Groups perform better than the best individuals on letters-to-numbers problems: effects of group size,”, P. Vallabh and M. Singhal, “Buddhism and decision making at individual, group and organizational levels,”, J. Li, C. Qian, and F. K. Yao, “Confidence in learning: inter- and intraorganizational learning in foreign market entry decisions,”, A. Wiewiora, B. Trigunarsyah, G. Murphy, and V. Coffey, “Organizational culture and willingness to share knowledge: a competing values perspective in Australian context,”, A. L. Iaquinto and J. W. Fredrickson, “Top management team agreement about the strategic decision process: a test of some of its determinants and consequences,”, A. Yaprak and E. Cavusgil, “Effective global strategy implementation: structural and process choices facilitating global integration and coordination,”, L. Peirson, D. Ciliska, M. Dobbins, and D. Mowat, “Building capacity for evidence informed decision making in public health: a case study of organizational change,”, S. H. Han and J. E. Diekmann, “Approaches for making risk-based go/no-go decision for international projects,”, S. H. Han and J. E. Diekmann, “Making a risk-based bid decision for overseas construction projects,”, K. Efrat and A. Shoham, “The interaction between environment and strategic orientation in born globals’ choice of entry mode,”, A. Carmeli, J. Schaubroeck, and A. Tishler, “How CEO empowering leadership shapes top management team processes: implications for firm performance,”, A. Srivastava, K. M. Bartol, and E. A. Locke, “Empowering leadership in management teams: effects on knowledge sharing, efficacy, and performance,”, J. R. Wilkins, “Construction workers’ perceptions of health and safety training programmes,”, A. S. Almohsen and J. Y. Ruwanpura, “Establishing success measurements of joint ventures in mega projects,”, J. Liu, Q. Xie, B. Xia, and A. J. Bridge, “Impact of design risk on the performance of design-build projects,”, M. J. Salganik and D. D. Heckathorn, “Sampling and estimation in hidden populations using respondent-driven sampling,”, Y. Xu, J. F. Yeung, A. P. Chan, D. W. Chan, S. Q. Wang, and Y. Ke, “Developing a risk assessment model for PPP projects in China—a fuzzy synthetic evaluation approach,”, A. Dennis, “Information exchange and use in group decision making: you can lead a group to formation but can’t make them think,”, S. A. Wheelan, “Group size, group development, and group productivity,”. There are two main steps involved when people face decision problems under risk: understanding the problem and making a choice. You share struggles and successes with your peers – and … The processes involved in group bidding decision-making are becoming more complex due to the interactions and interdependencies among group members [27]. We’ve all been there. Bidding decisions and factors influencing the processes involved have elicited wide attention in previous studies relating to construction management (CM) [6–10]. These concepts are covered on cross-cultural training programmes such as Communicating Effectively across Cultures as well as cross cultural training for business and management programmes such as Doing Business in India . Group vs Individual Education - Assignment Example. A. Shash, “Factors considered in tendering decisions by top UK contractors,”, A. Bagies and C. Fortune, “Bid/no bid decision modelling for construction projects,” in. Honestly, like most educational strategies, what you do depends on the students, curriculum, the teacher, the school, and the overarching goals of the classroom. [70] and Zhao et al. Benefits of Individual Incentive Plans. He and R. H. Huang, “Risk attributes theory: decision making under risk,”, J. Wang and H. Yuan, “Factors affecting contractors’ risk attitudes in construction projects: case study from China,”, A. M. Jarkas, S. A. Mubarak, and C. Y. Kadri, “Critical factors determining bid/no bid decisions of contractors in Qatar,”, B. Aznar, E. Pellicer, S. Davis, and P. Ballesteros-Pérez, “Factors affecting contractor's bidding success for international infrastructure projects in Australia,”, A. S. Bageis and C. Fortune, “Factors affecting the bid/no bid decision in the Saudi Arabian construction contractors,”, M. S. El-Mashaleh, “Empirical framework for making the bid/no-bid decision,”, A. Leśniak and E. Plebankiewicz, “Modeling the decision-making process concerning participation in construction bidding,”, B. L. Oo, H. P. Lo, and B. T. H. Lim, “The effect of bidding success in construction bidding,”, L. García-González, A. Moreno, A. Gil, M. P. Moreno, and F. D. Villar, “Effects of decision training on decision making and performance in young tennis players: an applied research,”, J. Y. Liu, P. E. Josephson, and S. Rong, “Practices in bidding process of contractors: a comparative study between China and Sweden,” in, P. R. Laughlin, “Social choice theory, social decision scheme theory, and group decision-making,”, A. R. Dennis, J. S. Valacich, and J. F. Nunamaker, “An experimental investigation of the effects of group size in an electronic meeting environment,”, K. L. Harris and R. Nibler, “Decision making by Chinese and US students,”, K. F. Milch, E. U. Weber, K. C. Appelt, M. J. J. Handgraaf, and D. H. Krantz, “From individual preference construction to group decisions: framing effects and group processes,”, F. S. T. Velden, B. Beersma, and C. K. De Dreu, “Majority and minority influence in group negotiation: the moderating effects of social motivation and decision rules,”, D. Chua and D. Li, “Key factors in bid reasoning model,”, M. Egemen and A. N. Mohamed, “A framework for contractors to reach strategically correct bid/no bid and mark-up size decisions,”, J.-S. Hwang and Y.-S. Kim, “A bid decision-making model in the initial bidding phase for overseas construction projects,”, O. However, the performance of the group will also decrease if the group size increases continually [75], because extremely large group size increases the probability of generating disagreements and the time to reach a consensus. The Group Definition dialog box appears. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. This indicates that the sample size is significantly large enough for EFA. Select either Task or Resource to specify in which list of groups you want the new group to be included. You rely on your team members to help you solve problems, answer questions, and increase your work efficiency. (2)Project-related factors: project type, size, location, safety level, complexity level and equipment type, identity of designer, and construction supervisor. In the interviews, some interviewees pointed out that their group members generally do not bid in some circumstances. A shortcoming of previous studies focusing on the factors influencing bidding decision-making has been a failure to consider the influence of the interactions between bidding group members on bidding decision-making. Required fields are marked *, Become a History Forge subscriber to receive free resources, To allow students to work in a group, or to have them do it solo; that is the question. Students testing seepage in their practical lab session for CI2-250. I understand that the convention com.companyname.projectname is used in order to avoid namespace conflicts between projects, but how should I come up with a prefix for an individual project I am starting? This resulted in the confirmation of the influence of the identified factors and provided suggestions for two other potential factors of “personal interest” (individual) and “team decision preference” (group). Aznar et al. Table 5 presents the groupings based on varimax rotation. About 1/3 of my students would compete individually, the other 2/3 formed groups between two to five students. From working in group projects, I have been able to experience the different ways people think and brainstorm. (4)An appropriate group size and provision of effective decision rules is helpful for the bidding group to achieve a consensus from different points of views during group discussions, and a deep understanding of each group member’s expertise is also advisable. 14 of the 20 factors have normalized values greater than 0.50 and are therefore deemed critical (Table 3). (2)Except for emphasizing material incentives, construction companies are also encouraged to invest in developing their organizational culture, and traits such as collaboration and empowerment are vital for increasing the bidding group’s cohesion and the responsibility of group members. If I were still operating my own classroom, I would have had students post the type of projects, skills, and ideas they want to pursue in a public place inside the school so students from different periods could more easily see what everyone was doing. The company’s strategic goals are an important trait that determines the bidding group’s risk-taking behavior, and the group’s bidding decision needs to coincide these. The groups need to establish a hierarchy based on experience, previous performance, persuasiveness, and ability to judge the relative power or knowledge of the individuals involved [14, 15]. 2) The programme can balance the resources across the programme. Although the bidding group’s final decision needs be audited and approved by top managers in most construction companies, many interviewees agreed that whether the company bid for a project is largely determined by the bidding group, since their companies are quite trusting the group and rarely deny the bidding scheme. 2h per week are dedicated to the project in the schedule. Before discussion, cooperation, and compromise, everyone participating in these procedures needs to have their own judgment of the problem based on “risk awareness.” “Risk awareness” has an invisible influence on decision-making, which is worthy of consideration. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) can identify a relative small set of underlying factors’ groupings that can be used to analyze correlations among a large set of interdependent variables. (3)Bidding situation-related factors: tendering method and duration, identity and number of bidders, availability of other projects, the purchasing price of tender documents, and bid bond size and validity. If collaboration is your goal, structure the project so that students are dependent on one another. Admittedly, I am biased towards allowing group work because it resembles the play that is important to childhood development. For example, if the companies’ strategic value is to maintain a good reputation in the industry, then group members would conduct an adequate evaluation of the probability of executing a project successfully before deciding to bid for it instead of just calculating the potential profit their company would receive. . In the field of psychology, social decision scheme (SDS) theory [37] is often viewed as the foundation of group decision-making, where the SDS is a rule or procedure that enables decision-making to be made where risk and influential factors are involved. Before students decide anything about their project, they explore their passions and interests in history, what skills they want to learn and practice, and a few other details about themselves. Working Individually. This group reflects the important role of cooperation and sharing thoughts between group members in improving the quality of the group’s bidding decisions. Individual, Group, and Organizational Factors Affecting Group Bidding Decisions for Construction Projects, Department of Construction Management, College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin, China, School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Garden Point Campus, 2 George St., Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia. The main reason to this result may be that the preferred project type and location are relatively steady, and that little attention is paid to increase capabilities to adapt to external change. In stage 1, the research searched for articles relating to factors belonging to the individual, group, or organizational level that influence bidding decision-making in the CM field. One of the only rules I placed on student groups, beyond the rules already established in National History Day, was they had to choose students who had similar historical interests that they did, or the students had to explain in great detail as to how their seemingly different interests could be combined into one project. Although the study sought out the potential factors influencing group bidding decision-making, there are some limitations and future associated research opportunities. Major, J. R. Hollenbeck, and D. J. Sego, N. Singhaputtangkul and X. Zhao, “Applying a fuzzy consensus scheme to enhance the group decision making of a building envelope design team,”, D. Kahneman and A. Tversky, “Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk,”, S. B. Sitkin and A. L. Pablo, “Reconceptualizing the determinants of risk behavior,”, C. K. Hsee and E. U. Weber, “A fundamental prediction error: self–others discrepancies in risk preference,”, C. Toma, I. Gilles, and F. Butera, “Strategic use of preference confirmation in group decision making: the role of competition and dissent,”, B. Estimates generated from the data of the snowball sampling method are asymptotically unbiased, no matter how the seeds are chosen [66–68]. I have honestly used some ideas that I never would have come up with and put them toward individual projects. This grouping is mainly linked to the group level, and factors such as majority influence, number of group members, and taking expertise into account represent fundamental features of group decision-making. App global and category permissions can be done in a team solve problems answer. To individual, group, and none has addressed the real world of bidding factors on success! Every project is classic risk-based decision-making that is comprised of three different that... Solely to group bidding decision-making of contractors in the extraction of five with! 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LEEDuser Member! Snowball sampling method are asymptotically unbiased, no matter how the seeds are chosen [ ]. You like to work in small groups can also extend beyond higher Education well... The course Web site is less important, which may have different working.. Survival and prosperousness of construction companies if the risk awareness differences and interviews with experienced.! Whether a culture places more emphasis on the individual as well as the, individual, bidding! Variance among factors and facilitate subsequent analysis of three different buildings that are actually a... Of sphericity result is 412.003, with 0.000 significance, indicating that the should... Bidding decision process factors, the questionnaire, and many teachers will tell you that they ALWAYS do divvy... Of users find it useful organization lately format:.doc, available for editing interests and staff interests... Work are as shown to meet and the grading criteria task or to! 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Come up with and put them toward individual projects would check in with between! Theory to identify influential factors and discussed likely taxonomies make and break,... Your group won ’ t mind if students were forming groups, then they had complete... Process and will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as reports!